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My bioinorganic and redox chemistry isn't up to par and I'm having a very difficult time understanding the chemical mechanism behind cystine bond formation. Most reactive environments are actually reductive whereas an oxidative environment is important for cystine bond formation. How does the oxidative environment oxidize the thiols, rearrange the orbitals and form a disulfide bond?
If your question is with respect to a eukaryotic cell, the di-sulfide bridge/bond is formed in the rough endoplasmic reticulum which is an oxidative environment (unlike most other organelles which are reductive). This paper may be of relevance to you:
Pathways for protein disulphide bond formation - Frand et al, Trends Cell Biol. 2000 May;10(5):203-10.