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Which cells are responsible for the extracellular matrix remodeling?

Which cells are responsible for the extracellular matrix remodeling?


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I am studying a case of tendinopathies induced by an alteration of how the extracellular matrix is being remodeled.

From my understanding there has to be a careful balance of MMP (metallproteinases) and TIMP enzymes to maintain tendon homeostasis.

Which cells produce these enzymes?


Taken from The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Metalloelastase (MMP-12) is (as the name suggests) capable of degrading elastin, as well as other extra-cellular matrix components. It is produced predominantly by infiltrating macrophages and appears essential for macrophage migration through extra-cellular matrix

Matrix Metalloproteinases in Cancer Cell Invasion gives a more thorough description of the various MMP and TIMP types

MMPs are mainly produced by nonmalignant stromal cells in malignant tumors. Tumor cells also secrete factors, such as extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN), which enhance the expression of MMPs by stromal fibroblasts (see Toole, in this book). In addition, growth factors and cytokines secreted by tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells as well as by tumor or stromal cells modulate MMP expression.