Information

3.4: An Introduction to the Human Body - Biology

3.4: An Introduction to the Human Body - Biology


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Learning Objectives

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.


Human Biology: An Evolutionary and Biocultural Perspective 2nd Edition

eTextbook
  • FREE return shipping at the end of the semester.
  • Access codes and supplements are not guaranteed with rentals.

Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products. Something we hope you'll especially enjoy: FBA items qualify for FREE Shipping and .

If you're a seller, Fulfillment by Amazon can help you grow your business. Learn more about the program.

Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required.

To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number.

or


Books

Our brilliantly simple book will take you through the fundamentals of biology in a way that is easy to follow and avoids difficult science jargon. Easy and enjoyable to read, the book introduces topics such as genetics, cells, evolution, basic biochemistry, the broad categories of organisms, plants, animals, and taxonomy.

Also available from Amazon, Book Depository, and all good bookstores.


Graduation Requirements

Undergraduate Graduation Requirements for Freshmen Entering with Fewer than 30 Credit Hours:

Freshmen entering the program with fewer than 30 credit hours are required to complete the following for a total of 51-52 hours:

  • ENG 111 and 210 (6 credits)
  • SPE 101 or COM 104 (3 credits)
  • Foreign Language (3 credits)
  • MAT (107 or higher) and CS (180, 190 or 211) (6 credits)
  • Science (with lab) (3-4 credits)
  • Fine Arts/Humanities
    • Art/Music/theatre/photography/dance- applied, appreciation or history (3 credits)

    Undergraduate Graduation Requirements for Transfer Students with 30 or More Credit Hours:

    Transfer students entering the program with 30 or more credit hours are required to complete the following:

    (1) Satisfactory completion of at least 45 credits of distributed coursework, including 9 credits in each of the following curricular divisions with a minimum of 3 credits in each of the ten subdivisions

    • Theology and Philosophy (9 credits)
    • Written and Oral Communication (9 credits)
    • Physical or Natural Science and Mathematics (9 credits)
    • Social and Behavioral Sciences (9 credits)
    • Humanities and the Arts (9 credits)
    • Total Distribution Requirements (45 credits)

    The above distributed coursework must be selected from an approved list of courses from the areas below.
    Students can obtain copies of the approved lists of courses from their academic advisors.

    • Philosophy
    • Theology
    • Written Communication: Excluding ENG 095
    • Oral Communication
    • Fine Arts: Art, Dance, Music, Photography, Theatre
    • Humanities: English Literature, French, Humanities, Spanish
    • Mathematics: Excluding MAT 090, 100, and 105
    • Natural Sciences: Biology, SES 360/360L, Environmental Science
    • Physical Sciences: Chemistry, Physics excluding CHE 110.
    • Behavioral Sciences: Anthropology, Criminology, Psychology, Sociology
    • Social Sciences: Economics, Geography, History, Political Science
    • All Methods of Teaching courses (XXX 376, 476) are excluded.

    (2) Satisfactory completion of a minimum of 120 credits with a cumulative average of 2.00 (C). Of the total, a minimum of 48 credits must be in courses numbered above 299. The last 30 credits and the majority of the major coursework must be completed at Barry University.

    (3) Individual schools require satisfactory completion of an integrative experience in the major field(s). Examples of integrative experiences are capstone courses or seminars, written or oral comprehensive exams, national certification or licensure exams, internships, and clinical field work.

    (4) Completion of a major. Specific requirements are given in the introduction to each of the majors. All requirements for the degree must be completed before students take part in a graduation ceremony.

    Students are required to take the Major Field Assessment Test (MFAT) in Biology.

    We are sorry but it appears that JavaScript is disabled on your browser.
    Our site is very interactive and it requires JavaScript to be enabled.


    Anatomy: A brief introduction

    Anatomy is the identification and description of the structures of living things. It is a branch of biology and medicine.

    The study of anatomy dates back more than 2,000 years , to the Ancient Greeks. There are three broad areas:

    Human anatomy is the study of the structures of the human body. An understanding of anatomy is key to the practice of medicine and other areas of health.

    The word “anatomy” comes from the Greek words “ana,” meaning “up,” and “tome,” meaning “a cutting.” Traditionally, studies of anatomy have involved cutting up, or dissecting, organisms.

    Now, however, imaging technology can show us much about how the inside of a body works, reducing the need for dissection.

    Below, learn about the two main approaches: microscopic anatomy and gross, or macroscopic, anatomy.

    Share on Pinterest Image credit: BraunS/istock .

    In medicine, gross, macro, or topographical anatomy refers to the study of the biological structures that the eye can see. In other words, a person does not need a microscope to see these features.

    The study of gross anatomy may involve dissection or noninvasive methods. The aim is to collect data about the larger structures of organs and organ systems.

    In dissection, a scientist cuts open an organism — a plant or the body of a human or another animal — and examines what they discover inside.

    Endoscopy is a tool for diagnosing illness, but it can also play a role in research . It involves a scientist or doctor inserting a long, thin tube with a camera at the end into different parts of the body. By passing it through the mouth or rectum, for example, they can examine the inside of the gastrointestinal tract.

    There are also less invasive methods of investigation. For example, to study the blood vessels of living animals or humans, a scientist or doctor may inject an opaque dye, then use imaging technology, such as angiography, to see the vessels that contain the dye. This reveals how the circulatory system is working and whether there are any blockages.

    MRI scans, CT scans, PET scans, X-rays, ultrasounds, and other types of imaging can also show what is happening inside a living body.

    Medical and dental students also perform dissection as part of their practical work during their studies. They may dissect human corpses.


    By studying biology, undergraduate students learn the structure, systems, evolution, reproductive methods, and adaptability of plants and animals basic cell structure structure of biological macromolecules organization of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells the inheritance of specific plant, animal, and human traits relationship of genetics to evolution the effects of humanity on natural environments scientific basis of evolutionary theory.

    Graduate-level courses include Foundations of Cell and Molecular Biology, Foundations of Environmental Physiology, Foundations of Ecology and Evolution, Topics in Zoology, Molecular Genetics, Mycology, Symbiology, Topics in Botany, Topics in Ecology, Topics in Animal Physiology.

    Undergraduate Courses

    BIO 100
    PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY
    3, 3/0 NSIF

    Non-majors only. The unifying principles of modern biology with special emphasis on cell biology, metabolism, and genetics.

    BIO 101
    HUMAN BIOLOGY
    3, 3/0 NSIF

    Non-majors only. Biological principles of the human condition with particular emphasis on physiology of normal body function with regard to nutrition, disease, psychoactive agents, reproduction and contraception, and aging. Contemporary health-related issues.

    BIO 104
    ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY
    3, 3/0 NSIF

    Non-majors only. Biological aspects of global environmental problems. Principles of ecology.

    BIO 105
    BIOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS AND ISSUES
    3, 3/0 NSIF, TSIF

    Science of molecular biology tools for manipulating genes of most forms of life, including humans. Biotechnology’s application of those tools to address problems in agriculture, the environment, medicine, and society. Effectiveness and safety of biotechnology, as well as the cultural, political, and ethical concerns about its application.

    BIO 210
    MICROBIOLOGY
    3, 2/2

    Prerequisite: BIO 100.
    Non-majors only. Morphology and physiology of bacteria. General application to household science, sanitation, hygiene, and infectious disease.

    BIO 211
    INTRODUCTION TO CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS
    4, 3/3 NSIF

    The chemicals of life and their hierarchal organization in cells. Cell organelles. Metabolism and energy transformations. Cell division, gene expression, Mendelian and population genetics. Biotechnology in human health, nutrition, and society.

    BIO 212
    INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL BIOLOGY AND DIVERSITY
    4, 3/3 NSIF

    Origins and history of life. Functional biology of animals and plants studied in an integrated fashion. Survey of morphology, physiology, development, reproduction, and life cycles of animals, plants, fungi and microbes.

    BIO 213
    INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION, AND BEHAVIOR
    4, 3/3 NSIF

    Population, community, and ecosystem ecology human impact on the environment. The Darwinian revolution, evolution of populations, and the formation of new species. Principles of animal behavior.

    BIO 300
    BIOSTATISTICS
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: Algebra, upper-division status.
    Statistical inference as a guide to decision making during biological investigations. Elements of experimental design. Exploratory data analysis. Tabular, graphical, and written interpretation of results. Application of inferential techniques, including confidence intervals, t-tests, analysis of variance, chi-square analysis of contingency tables, and linear regression and correlation.

    BIO 301
    CELL PHYSIOLOGY
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 211, CHE 201.
    Physiological processes at the cellular level.

    BIO 303
    GENETICS
    4, 3/3 OCIF

    Prerequisites: CHE 111, CHE 112.
    Principles of Mendelian, molecular, and population genetics. Classic and molecular experimental methods for studying gene structure, transmission, expression.

    BIO 305
    MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: CHE 201.
    Structure, organization, and function in living matter at the molecular level.

    BIO 308
    HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisites: BIO 100, upper-division status.
    Physiology and pertinent anatomy of the major organ systems of the human body, including consideration of clinical health and disease. Not applicable as a biology elective for students pursuing a B.A. in biology.

    BIO 309
    LABORATORY IN HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
    1, 0/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 100, upper-division status.
    Human anatomy and functions of the major anatomical systems using the techniques of rigorous animal dissection (e.g., cats and sheep organs) and physiological experiments. Not applicable as a biology elective for students pursuing a B.A. in biology.

    BIO 314
    ADVANCED CELL BIOLOGY
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: CHE 201.
    In-depth examination of the cell. Emphasis on the contribution of the molecular approach to the understanding of cell structure and functions, in particular, the contribution of recombinant DNA technology.

    BIO 315
    ECOLOGY
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 212, BIO 213, CHE 111, CHE 112.
    Ecosystems, biotic communities, interspecific and intraspecific relationships, biogeochemical cycles, energy flow, population ecology, introduction to analysis of community composition, effects of humanity in modifying natural environments. Several halfday or all-day field trips may be required.

    BIO 316
    GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY
    4, 2/6

    Prerequisites: CHE 111, CHE 112.
    Microorganisms and techniques of observing their morphology, growth characteristics, and distribution. The relationship of microorganisms to human activities.

    BIO 321
    COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 212, BIO 213.
    Function, evolution, and development of the diversity of vertebrate structure. Rigorous dissections of representative vertebrate morphologies (e.g., preserved sharks, amphibians, cats, etc.).

    BIO 322
    HUMAN HEREDITY
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisites: BIO 100, upper-division status.
    Non-majors only. Human inheritance and the social implications of genetics to modern society.

    BIO 324
    BIOLOGY OF HUMAN REPRODUCTION
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisites: BIO 100, upper-division status.
    Non-majors only. Anatomy and physiology of the human reproductive system, development of the human embryo, and the processes of birth and lactation.

    BIO 325
    ICHTHYOLOGY
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 212, BIO 213.
    Study of the biology of fishes: structure and function (anatomy and physiology), systematics, evolution, diversity, zoogeography, and ecology.

    BIO 350
    GENES IN POPULATIONS
    4, 3/3 OCIF

    Prerequisites: CHE 111, CHE 112, upper-division status.
    Processes that cause populations to change over time mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow. Application of population genetic principles to problems in conservation biology and forensic genetic analysis.

    BIO 402
    COMPARATIVE ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 212, CHE 201.
    Study of hormonal control, neural processing, sensory mechanisms, circulation, gas exchange, digestion, muscles, energetics, and thermoregulation using vertebrate and invertebrate examples.

    BIO 405
    ORGANIC EVOLUTION
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisites: BIO 212, BIO 213, BIO 303.
    Empirical foundation of evolutionary theory. Emphasizes the dynamics of the process of evolution, especially as it relates to individual variation within an interbreeding population, to the variation pattern on the population level, and to the origin of species more recent trends, such as introgressive hybridization, polyploidy, apomixis, and genetic homeostasis are developed.

    BIO 408
    PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 212, CHE 201.
    Physiological processes in plants, including photosynthesis, respiration, osmosis, translocation, transpiration, effects of hormones, soil nutrients, and tropisms.

    BIO 414
    MAMMALOGY
    3, 2/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 212, BIO 213.
    Introduction to the study of mammals, living and extinct, including a survey of the diversity of mammalian life history strategies, behavior, ecology, morphology, and physiology. Required field trips, collection techniques, and preparation of study materials.

    BIO 418
    LIMNOLOGY
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 212, BIO 213, CHE 111, CHE 112.
    Physical, chemical, and biological factors that influence freshwater life and the ecological interactions in freshwater communities. Lectures, demonstrations, and field trips.

    BIO 421
    INVERTEBRATE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    3, 2/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 212, BIO 213.
    Functional approach to the morphology, physiology, adaptation, ecology, reproduction, and evolution of invertebrates.

    BIO 428
    VERTEBRATE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 212, BIO 213.
    Comparative study of vertebrates, with emphasis on their anatomy, adaptations, ecology, and phylogenetic relationships.

    BIO 429
    FISHERIES BIOLOGY
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 212, BIO 213.
    Ecology and management of fish populations. Sampling techniques and fisheries-management techniques (including stocking, hatcheries, and aquaculture programs). Feeding, behavior, and life history of fishes.

    BIO 430
    STREAM ECOLOGY
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 212, BIO 213, upper-division status a course in statistics recommended,
    Biological, chemical, geomorphic, and hydrologic features affecting the ecology of flowing water systems. Emphasis on freshwater invertebrate life histories, adaptations, and community structure in shallow streams.

    BIO 450
    RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
    4, 2/4

    Prerequisites: BIO 303 or BIO 350, CHE 201.
    Extensive hands-on experience using the techniques of biotechnology. Emphasis on techniques involving the construction of recombinant DNA molecules and their analysis.

    BIO 488
    BIOLOGY INTERNSHIP
    Variable credit

    Prerequisites: Minimum cumulative and biology GPA of 2.5 BIO 211, BIO 212, BIO 213 faculty adviser and department chair permission.
    An opportunity to apply learned principles and methodologies in a workplace setting.

    BIO 495
    SPECIAL PROJECT

    Prerequisites: Faculty adviser and department chair permission.

    BIO 498
    HONORS RESEARCH
    3, 0/9

    BIO 111, BIO 212, and BIO 213, BIO 214 completion of 70 or more credit hours minimum GPA of 3.4 in biology major and minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0
    Independent investigation of an original scientific problem, completed over two semesters with transition to the second semester dependent upon satisfactory completion of research proposal during the first semester. Submission of a final written report of investigation and an oral presentation of work at a scientific meeting.

    BIO 499
    INDEPENDENT STUDY

    Prerequisites: Faculty adviser and department chair permission.

    Graduate Courses

    BIO 587: TOPICS IN BIOLOGY
    1-4, 1-4/0

    In-depth examination of rapidly and significantly changing disciplinary issues, topics, or practices offered occasionally.

    BIO 590: INDEPENDENT STUDY
    1-6, 0/0

    Independent investigation into a specific area of biology topic selected by the student in consultation with a faculty member.

    BIO 601: FOUNDATIONS OF CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisites: Undergraduate courses in cell biology and genetics or instructor permission.

    Fundamental paradigms in cell and molecular biology as illustrated by current research mechanisms by which genes control morphogenesis of plants and animals evolution of the eukaryotic genome mechanisms by which the transcription of eukaryotic genes is regulated regulation of the cell division cycle in eukaryotic cells. Emphasizes current literature as well as writing and oral expression about the literature readings.

    BIO 602: FOUNDATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisites: Undergraduate courses in botany and zoology or instructor permission.

    Evolution of specialized features in plants and animals that allow them to maintain a stable internal environment while being exposed to a variety of external environmental conditions: adaptations of organisms for environments low in water or oxygen problems associated with ionic and water regulation in freshwater and marine organisms fundamental physiological principles that apply to both plants and animals.

    BIO 603: FOUNDATIONS OF ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisites: Undergraduate courses in ecology and evolution or instructor permission.

    Current theories and paradigms of modern ecology and evolution population and community interactions of organisms coevolution ecological and evolutionary genetics micro- and macroevolution.

    BIO 608: MOLECULAR GENETICS
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisite: One course in genetics.

    Molecular basis of the structure, replication, and genetic function of DNA mutation, recombination, and the nature of genes the genetic code, messenger and transfer RNA, and protein biosynthesis molecular evolution of proteins.

    BIO 612: TOPICS IN ECOLOGY
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisites: One semester each of ecology and biometrics or equivalent.

    Lecture and discussion on a specific topic in ecology, such as population ecology, microbial ecology, plant ecology, ecology of the Great Lakes, or advanced limnology. Topics vary with each session. May be taken more than once.

    BIO 616: TOPICS IN ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisites: General physics, organic chemistry, and one year of physiology.

    Lecture and discussion on special topics in animal physiology, such as immunology, advanced animal physiology, and animal responses to stress. Topics vary with each session. May be taken more than once.

    BIO 617: RESEARCH SEMINAR
    1, 1/0

    Presentations and discussions of current research projects by graduate students in biology. Each participant presents a seminar. Required for all candidates for the M.A. degree in biology.

    BIO 625: ICHTHYOLOGY
    3, 2/3

    Prerequisite: One semester of ecology or permission of instructor.
    Advanced study of the biology of fishes, including anatomy, physiology, systematic, evolution, ecology, and diversity.

    BIO 626: TOPICS IN BOTANY
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisite: 9 credit hours of botanyoriented courses.

    Lecture and discussion on a specific topic in botany, such as biosystematics, dendrology, wetland plants, plant pathology, or plant response to stress. Topics vary with each session. May be taken more than once.

    BIO 627: TOPICS IN ZOOLOGY
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisite: 9 credit hours of zoology oriented courses.

    Lecture and discussion on a specific topic in zoology, such as invertebrate zoology, entomology, fisheries biology, or functional vertebrate morphology. Topics vary with each session. May be taken more than once.

    BIO 629: FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
    3, 3/2

    Prerequisite: One semester of ecology or instructor permission.

    Advanced study of ecology and management of fish populations emphasizing inland fisheries in North America. Topics include management philosophies, fisheries statistics and modeling, habitat protection and
    manipulation, introduced and endangered species, stocking, and Great Lakes fisheries.

    BIO 630: STREAM ECOLOGY
    Prerequisite: One semester each of ecology and statistics or instructor permission.

    Biological, chemical, geomorphic, and hydrologic features affecting the ecology of flowing water systems. Emphasis on freshwater invertebrate life histories, adaptations, and community structure in shallow streams.

    BIO 631: ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
    3, 3/0

    Fundamental principles of environmental toxicology, including major environmental pollutants, their sources, toxic effects, mechanism of action, and factors that influence the toxicity of a chemical. Processes that govern the fate of a chemical in biological systems.

    BIO 635
    GREAT LAKES ECOLOGY
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisite: One semester of ecology or instructor permission.

    Study of the North American Great Lakes: physical and chemical features, biological structure, and ecological interactions. Focus on environmental issues, including water quality and the effect of introduced species.

    BIO 670: BIOLOGICAL DATA ANALYSIS
    3, 3/0

    Prerequisite: One course in statistics.
    Experimental design and statistical analysis of biological data applications of computers to biological investigations. Designed for students in the initial stages of planning their research.

    BIO/CHE 672: FORENSIC MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
    4, 3/3

    Prerequisites: BIO 303 or BIO 350 FOR 612 or CHE 312 CHE 670, CHE 470 or BIO 305 or equivalents.
    Applications of biology, biochemistry, and genetics to forensic science with an in-depth look at the evidential information that can be obtained from blood, semen, saliva, and hair. Details of DNA profiling, including DNA extraction, DNA quantification, PCR amplification, STR analysis and interpretation, and
    mtDNA sequencing. Protein polymorphisms and immunological tests. Laboratory component providing hands-on experience with techniques commonly used in a forensic biology laboratory.


    Watch the video: Ένζυμα - βιολογικοί καταλύτες (October 2022).